Energy-efficient, site-specific planning

2013


Table of Contents

Introduction
1. Energetics and function
1.1. Definitions related to comfort level
1.1.1. The concept of heat sensation
1.1.2. The human body’s heat transfer, heat exchange and the effecting factors
1.1.3. The thermal equilibrium of the human body
1.1.4. Determination of the expected subjective heat sensation
1.1.5. Local discomfort factors
1.1.6. The interior air quality
1.1.7. The „Sick Building Syndrome”
2. Historical review of air conditions of living spaces
3. Energetics and Climatic Conditions
3.1. The definition of the climate
3.2. The classification of the climatic conditions
3.2.1. Climatic classification:
4. Energetics and location
5. The DROID and its history
5.1. The invented measuring system and its three components:
5.1.1. The measuring device:
5.1.2. The evaluating algorithm:
5.1.3. The visualization software:
6. About the project
Test Exercise
7. Bibliography and Recommended Literature:
8. Appendix
9. Test Questions on the curricula

List of Figures

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
3.1.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
5.1.

List of Tables

1.1. Table No 1.
2.1. Table No 2.
3.1. Table No 3.
4.1. Table No 4.

Dear Readers!

Building energetics is the complex analysis of energies entering the building (energy gain), the energy consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the building, and energies leaving the building (energy loss).

Building energy dimensioning today in Hungary happens by the existing regulation TNM 7/2006. (V.24.) and its sections. The fundamental aim of the regulation is to make buildings comparable regarding energetics. By reason of comparability it makes buildings comply with building energy requirements using projected average data from over the country.

In the course of the calculation, the regulation determines the value of outside temperature without reference to the local circumstances, using a projected average data from over the country. The method of calculation simplifies the radiation heat gain, assumes homogeneous inside heat load, and does not take the local climate effects of the area, like the wind, the shading and the surface radiation into account.

Planning and constructing economical buildings in respect of energetics is becoming more and more important. In its 2020 strategy the EU has set the target to reduce its energy consumption by 20%. Since 40% of the energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emission is on account of to the operation of buildings, a low extent efficiency improvement could already result in significant economic savings.

By using the current dimensioning system we end up getting a fake image about the buildings’ energy consumption. Standardized data used by the regulation, can result in great differences on local levels. To get a more precise prediction about the buildings’ energy consumption, we have to take into account that the inhabitants’ demands and the environmental effects impacting the building do change both in time and space.

In response to the previous thoughts, the Residential Building Design Department of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics started a research, connecting to the BUTE program called „Development of quality-oriented and harmonized R+D+I strategy and functional model at BME" (Project ID: TÁMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002), supported by project New Széchenyi Plan. The result of this research was a patented invention, a newly designed measuring equipment and software system, called: DROID. By measuring the site-specific environmental effects the developed unit creates location and building geometry-specific data and organizes them into databases. The research clearly demonstrated, that the energy balance of a building is significantly affected by local environmental effects.

This curriculum, created by the Residential Building Design Department, supported by a curriculum developing tender, called: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0055 - „Tananyagfejlesztés a lakóépületek tervezése tárgykörben, különös tekintettel a fenntartható és energiatudatos szemléletmódra” would like to draw attention to the afore mentioned issue.

The chapters of this curriculum present different aspects of the topic of energy efficient design: One chapter presents the modern people’s demands regarding comfort level in different residential spaces. Another chapter presents the change in user’s demands through time and space on different examples from periods in the Hungarian history. Yet another chapters show how influential the global and local climatic conditions are to the energy usage of buildings. Finally the curriculum brings on a case study including a complex approach, that shows the possibilities of the site-specific architectural design methodology.

We believe that the assumptions presented in this curriculum can support the reform of building energy dimensioning methodology in the long-term, and can provide aggregates to public opinion on the matter.

Budapest, November 2013.

The ESP Team

To approach the topic of this curriculum – energy-efficient, site-specific planning - it is imperative to understand the basics of building energetics and comfort theory. Building energetics is the complex analysis of energies entering the building (energy gain), the energy consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the building, and energies leaving the building (energy loss). Several well useable curricula and textbooks were made in the subject by the BUTE Faculty of Architecture Department of Building Energetics and Building Services, therefore this study does not discuss these particularly – it leans on them.

In regard of comfort theory this study builds on the book of László Bánhidi – László Kajtár: Komfortelmélet, Budapest, Műegyetemi Kiadó (2000).

Human needs on residential environments are considered to be satisfied, when the residential environment ensures comfort of its inhabitants. Comfort is a subjective relation between a person and the surrounding closed space. Amongst others, building energetics deals with the human needs on residential environments, which studies the energy consumption to produce the necessary comfort level inside the building, besides studying the energies entering the building, and the energies leaving the building.

The factors primarily affecting the comfort level – the temperature, the humidity, the motion of air, the noise and the lighting – all have direct effect on humans. The moderately influential factors of comfort level are sun radiation, ionization and vibrations, that occur less and more periodic. The human organism’s conformation to a specific environment is a complex process, the single factors apply combined as well as in interference, and the human organism reacts to this collective effect.

In a generic case the first three of the comfort level manipulating factors, the temperature, the humidity and the motion of air are closely related to building energetics. Table 1. - The needs on accommodations shows chosen factors’ specific values based on the present Hungarian people’s general needs on residential environments. Separating an ordinary residential environment into diversely functioning spaces, the differences between the needs may be observed.


Regarding the indoor temperature, there are differences between the values expected in summer and winter (the favorable temperature in summer is an average of 24-26 ˙C, while in winter it is 20-22˙C), therefore they have to be studied apart. The expected level of humidity is described in the table as the relative air humidity. The allowed rate of air motion in dwellings’ interior spaces is 0,2 m/s, but usually it does not even reach 0,1 m/s.

It is important to note, that the level of comfort is a subjective human demand. Therefore the data shown in the table are general values which, in reality vary by person to person. The different needs could be affected by the environment, the cultural background as well as age. For example, the little children and the elderly people feel comfortable in warmer temperated residential spaces than usual and it’s more difficult for them to conform themselves to the changes of air conditions.

The comfort level factor related to environment heat is called heat sensation factor. The emergence of this subjective sensation is mainly affected by the following six parameters:

  • air temperature, its distribution and change in space and time,

  • radiational temperature of the surrounding surfaces,

  • relative humidity of the air, and the partial pressure of steam within the air,

  • speed of airflow,

  • the human body’s heat production, heat transfer, and heat regulation,

  • the heat insulating ability of clothing, its affect on evaporation.

The first four are physical parameters, while the latter two are related to the human organism’s adaptability. The subjective heat sensation is fixed by standards in some countries, namely the so called comfortable heat sensation, which, according to ASHRAE (1981) 55-81 standard is the following:

The comfortable heat sensation is the mental condition, which expresses the satisfaction related to thermal environment. The question is how this „comfortably subjective” sensation could become quantified, generally applicable. For this, the so called subjective heat sensation scales are applied, the following 7 point scale is the most widespread today:

hot+3
warm+2
comfortably warm+1
neutral0
comfortably cold-1
cool-2
cold-3

Within this scale, the +1, 0, -1 range is the so called comfortable zone. The subjective heat sensation scale shows, that in an ordinary Hungarian person’s living room, decreasing the 21˙C winter time temperature expected by them with 2˙C causes a cold heat sensation while leaving the comfortable zone.

P. Ole Fanger worked out a principle, or rather practical method, according to which by knowing several parameters, a predicted mean vote could be determined in specific points of a closed space. This is the so called PMV value, the Predicted Mean Vote, and the PPD value, which is the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied. Knowing about the concept of these two indicators is essential.


Working out the PMV value, Fanger started from the heat balance equation, and from ASHRAE psycho-physiologycally subjective heat sensation scale, as showed in the paragraph ’The concept of heat sensation’

After collecting many individual’s heat sensational values he assumed, that the average value of 0 should correspond to the case when the heat balance equation’s result is 0, and the heat production and the outer heat transfer is balanced.

It’s a known fact, that the human organism can keep the thermal equilibrium between wide borders (chemical and physical heat regulation, sweating etc.), but in this wide range only a relatively narrow zone (PMV between -1 and +1 values) could be regarded as the comfortable heat sensation range, the comfort zone. Fanger supposed with reason, that the higher the discomfort rate is, the higher conformation for the maintenance of heat balance is needed by the heat controlling mechanism. He supposed, that – on a specific activity level – the human heat sensation is related to the heat load. This heat load was defined as the difference of the indoor heat load and the heat quantity transferred towards the environment, which is 0 amongst comfort terms.

Fanger taking the heat balance equations created by himself into account and PMV-PPD values invented by himself, worked out the so called comfort diagrams. These are directly able to be used for the heat sensational dimensioning of closed places.

In recent years it has become evident, that there can be discrete points inside closed places dimensioned with the most up-to-date methods, where a person being there has heat comfort complaints. These are called local discomfort factors, because of the nature of their occurrence. By this notion we mean those parameters, which:

  • only shows up on specific points of a closed place,

  • their effect does usually not refer to the whole human body, but only to certain parts of it.

From the aspect of subjective heat sensation, and the human heat exchange, we currently track two kinds:

  • asymmetric radiation and

  • the draft effect.

By asymmetric radiation we understand the phenomenon when a person being in a closed space has radiation heat exchange between his specific body parts and it is at relatively higher or lower temperated surfaces, so the body part is effected by heat radiation, or radiative heat transfer is toward these surfaces.

A human’s sensibility to air motion depends on the air temperature and the effects of the air flow. Illustration 2. - Permissible airflow speed values based on environmental temperature shows the values of permissible air speed based on the values of environmental temperature. It must be concluded, that in point A of the curve at a 25˙C temperature, the airflow speed of around 0,3 m/s is still comfortable, while in point B at 18˙C, 0,1 m/s is already disturbing. Body parts sensible to draft are neck and ankle.


The inhabitants’ comfort demands for the interior spaces of residential buildings are constantly changing. This chapter presents the differing air conditions on typical residential examples from the different periods of Hungarian history, organized into the Table 2. - Change of the Air Conditions in Historical Living Spaces. Throughout the history until the mid-20th century people only controlled temperature out of the possible characteristic features of interior air conditions, therefore the table only contains data on the interior air temperature in summer and winter.

Table 2.1. Table No 2.

Name of periodPeriod of timeArchitectural characteristics, structures usesCharacteristic buildings from the periodThe analysed buildingThe structures of the analysed buildingHeating and cooling system of the analysed buildingInside condition of air in winterInside condition of air in summerSource of datadescription of the picturecode of the picturecopyrights of the picturesource of the picture
I. Previous to history of architecture in Hungary (until then 10. century)Architecture of Prehistoric Age and Bronze Agebefore the 1st centuryprimarily caves, primitive tents and huts - habitations must provide from rain, snow and wind - controlled use of fireSzeleta Cave (in the Bükk Montains); Baradla Cave (Cave of Aggtelek Karst); Vértesszőlős "Basin houses""Basin houses", Vértesszőlős (approx. 500 000 years ago)pit holes with a diameter of 8-9 meters; in the middle the a clear area provides the possibility of escape from enemies or predators; sourrounded by lime tuff cliffs (a loose and porose material, good heat insulation)fireplaces (diameter: 40-60 centimeters); fueled by: wood and bones of animals - the bones gave a higher temperature and were glowing longercold; warmer in the immediate surroundings of the fire, but farther away from the fire the temperature quickly got colder, inside the basins it was warmer than the average outside temperature; at the entrances of caves the temperature was the same as outside, deeper inside the caves it was warmer, around 0 to +5°Cin the basins and at the entrances of caves the temperature was around the same as the daily average outside temperature, deeper in the caves it was a cooler, 8-12°CMagyar Régészet Az Ezredfordulón, Nemzeti Kulturális Örökség Minisztériuma, Teleki L. Alapítvány, Budapest 2003 - 78-79. oldal "Basin houses", Vértesszőlős
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"Basin houses", Vértesszőlős
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"Basin houses", Vértesszőlős
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building of primitive habitatsmotte and bunker houses, Százhalombatta (Bronze Age); Tiszajenő -Szárazrétpart (4. millenium BC); Csanytelek (4. millenium BC) Nyíregyháza - Mandabokor scythian house (7-4. century BC); Endrőd and Szolnok,bank of the rifer Zagyva - semi-subterranean housesmotte and bunker house, Százhalombatt (Bronze Age)rectangle shaped, semi-subterranean house; walls made out of wowen wood sticks (wattle) and are plastered with mud; roof structure supported by posts and piles; thatch roofinside and outside kilns, smouldering pits, grating kilnsinside temeprature was an acceptable 8-16°C because of the open fireplaces and kilns, air quality depended on the air density of the buildingthe temperature was pleasant in summer, due to the building being sunk into the ground; no overheating in summerMagyar Régészet Az Ezredfordulón, Nemzeti Kulturális Örökség Minisztériuma, Teleki L. Alapítvány, Budapest 2003, - 152-153, 180-181.oldalMotte, Százhalombatta
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Motte, Százhalombatta
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Bunker house, Százhalombatta
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Bunker house, Százhalombatt
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Architecture of the Roman Empire in Hungarybetween the 1st and the 7th centuryarchitecture of dwelling-house is diverse (dwelling-houses with stores, craftsman houses, detached villas); generic structures: wall made out of stones and bricks, low angeled pitch roofs, roofing with tile covering; flat ceiling: plank, beam, reed structures, floor and wall heatingGorsium(Tác), Palatium - urban villa (3th century); Nemesvámos, Balácapuszta - central building of Villa rustica (2-3th century); Budapest, Aquincum - dwelling-housesdwelling-house with ornamental garden and store, Budapest, Aquincumdevelopment in unbroken rows, walls made out of stones and bricks, stock bricks and hollow bricks; low angeled pitch roof; roofing tiles; glazed windows; flat ceiling: plank, beam, reed - layer orderportable smolder holders, but the centralized underfloor heating is more significant - the aim is to heat the floor, principle of operation: heat transfer through air flow (it consisted of 3 parts: the fire making chamber, the cellar like heating space under the premises up, a hollow system in the walls to help the ascending airflow - this system reduced the moisture condensation in the faces of the walls) this heating system also helped in a better insulation of the roomsthe quality of doors and windows defined the inside temperature, the floor and wall heating provided a high level of comfort, large faces of the walls and floors were always warm, the air temperature was between 14-16°Cin stone bulidings with little windows the indise temperature followed the daily mean temperature with a low fluctuation; no overheating in summerHajnóczi Gyula - Pannónia Római Romjai, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest 1987, - 28-46.oldal, Aquincum Polgárvárosa, Budapest Történeti Múzeum, Aquincumi Múzeuma, Budapest 1997, - 19, 37. oldal Southeastern part of Aquincum with the dwelling house - block plan, Budapest
Gyula Hajnóczi J. Hajnóczi J. Gyula, forrás: Pannónia Római Romja, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest 1987 101. oldal 116. ábra
Dwelling-house with ornamental garden and shop premises - axonometric drawing, Aquincum, Budapest
Gyula Hajnóczi J. Hajnóczi J. Gyula, forrás: Pannónia Római Romja, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest 1987 113. oldal 141. ábra
Southeastern part of Aquincum with the dwelling-house, Budapest
Gabriella Vidhttp://www.e-nyelv.hu/2013-07-28/mutargymesek/
Architecture of Migration Periodbetween the 7th and the 10th centuryco-occurence of mobile and fixed habitatsjurts and temporary singel space housesjurts from the Age of Settlement of the Magyars in Hungary (sample building in the EMESE - Archeological Park)foldable, traverse hinged wooden strut; framed door; rafters; outer finishing: rush mat, reed mat, skins and feltopen fireplace in the center if the jurt; smoke hole above the fireplace as a result of the open fireplace the temperature in winter was an acceptable 4-12°C; air quality depended on the air density of the building; farther away from the fire the temperature got colderthe jurt was oberheated in summer, due to its small thermal inertiahttp://istvandr.kiszely.hu/ostortenet/030.html http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/JurtaJurt, mongolian steppe
Adagiohttp://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurta
jurts from the Age of Settlement of the Magyars in Hungary, EMESE - Archeological Park
Sándor Rabhttp://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurta
Baskir jurt - axonometric drawing
Gyula László http://istvandr.kiszely.hu/ostortenet/030.html
II.Romanesque architecture1000-1241living in two places is characteristic: summer - shelters, tents; winter - solid buildings, Material in villages and towns: reed (rarely wood or stone) typical is the semi-subterranean househouses with wattle walls (Fonyód - Bélatelep); log houses (Edelény - borsodi földvár); bunker house (Kardoskút, Doboz-Hajdúírtás, Tiszalök-Rázom,Orosháza); reconstructions of bunker houses can be found in the Ages of Árpád open-air ethnographic museum - Tiszaalpár, Archeological Park - Szarvasgede and in the EMESE - Archeological Parksoil house from the Age of Árpád (sample building in the EMESE - Archeological Park)semi-subterranean house, covered by ground; small house (2-3 by 3-4 meters); rounded square or circle shape; the lower part of the walls was the side of the excavation, the upper part was clay poached wicker (patics) and soil, the roof structure was supported by an earopen fireplaces in the center of the subterranean house, the smoke left the house through the door and splits on the roofas a result of the open fireplace and the thicker wall structure the temperature in winter was an acceptable 8-16°C; air quality depended on the air density of the buildingthe temperature was pleasant in summer, due to the building being sunk into the ground; no overheating in summerMagyar Régészet Az Ezredfordulón, Nemzeti Kulturális Örökség Minisztériuma, Teleki L. Alapítvány, Budapest 2003, - 325-326. oldal http://mek.oszk.hu/09100/09179/09179.pdfHouses form the Age of Árpád - drawings
László Mérihttp://mek.oszk.hu/09100/09179/09179.pdf
Earth house from the Age of Árpád, Emese- Archeological Park
Sándor Rab http://www.panoramio.com/photo/51098583
House from the near of Debrecen - drawings
Ecsedi http://mek.oszk.hu/09100/09179/09179.pdf - 156.oldal
III. Gothic architecture (1241-1536)Early Gothic architecture1241-1300the aim of Gothic architecture in Hungary was not structural developmnet, it was the takeing ove of details from previews. Citizenship strenghtens, developing of cities begins. The building materials were prmitive and low rise buildings were typical in Hungary. Regarding residential houses, the royal architecture was significant.keep of the Lower castle, Visegrád; - castle of Diósgyőr. Diósgyőr; castle of Árva, Árvaváralja (today: in Slovakia)keep of Lower Castle, Visegrád - Salamon Tower (1258, rebuilt around 1325 )elongated hexagon shaped floorplan; the walls are 3,50 meters thick, in the corners 7 meters; the building is 31 meters high; it has 5 stories; timber ceilings made out of oak beams; an outhouse tower belonged to the north-western part of the tower; windows were only placed on the western and eastern facades hearts on every storie in the northern wall od the keepin winter the keeps of the castles could not provide a pleasant comfort, regarding the air temperature the semi-subterranean houses were better than the castles and towers; temeparutre in winter was between 0 and +10°Cdue to the thicker walls made of stone, the temperatures in the lower stories was more pleasant than the acceptable temperatures of the higher stories; no overheating storiesVárépítészetünk, Főszerk: Gerő László, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1975, 287-291. oldalSalamon tower - keep of Lower Castle, Visegrád
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Salamon tower - keep of Lower Castle, Visegrád
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Salamon tower - keep of Lower Castle, Visegrád
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Salamon tower - keep of Lower Castle, Visegrád
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Mater and Late Gothic architecture1300-1526typical medieval cities appiered in the mater and late gothic periods in Hungary; Royal architecture is important in residential architecture, civil architecture and religous architecture also rise in importanceRoyal architecture: Castle of Tata, Tata; keep, Nagyvázsony; castle with tower, Gyula; Civil dwelling-houses: the Budapest Castle Hill - Tárnok street 14, Országház street 18-20; Religious architecture: Dominican Monastery, Margaret Island - BudapestCastle of Tata, Tata (1397-1409,1420 - constructions from Age of Zsigmond , around 1460 - constructions from Age of Mátyás)castle with four towers on its corners protruding from the buildings wings, rectangular yard - nowadays only the southern wing and the excavated plinths can be visited"stoves from the age of Zsigmond" - threefold divided stoves covered with tilesthe hearths caused the advancament of inside temperature, but in the castles and fortified castles the comfort was not good in winter, the temeperautre was between +4 - +14°Cthe temeperature was acceptable in summer; no overheating in summerVárépítészetünk, Főszerk: Gerő László, Műszaki Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1975, 276-281.oldalCastle of Tata, Tata
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Castle of Tata, Tata
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Castle of Tata, Tata
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IV. Renaissance (1458-1686)Early and High Renaissance1458-1541The Renaissance in Hungary first appiered in the court of King Mátyás. In the early period of Renaissance a lot of gothical castles and keeps were built, it is the time of palaces in architectureCastle of Simontornya - Old tower, Simontornya; Keep, Sárospatak (1541 - renaissance rebuildung); The Royal Palace, VisegrádThe Royal Palace, Visegrád (1477-1485 - rebuilt)structures made out of stone, in the back yard of palace is two storey cloister; Hercules Fontain in the middle of the court; living rooms and bedrooms were on the second storey, with a lower internal height with timber ceilingshearths and "stoves from the age of Mátyás" - detailed shaping, covered with tilesas a result of the better hearths and the "stoves from the age of Mátyás" the comfort was pleasant, the temeprature in winter was around 15 °Cthe temeperature was acceptable in summer; no overheating in summerVisegrád, Királyi palota - Tájak Korok Múzeumok kiskönyvtára 11, Cartographia, Budapest, 1993The Royal Palace, Visegrád
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The Royal Palace, Visegrád
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The Royal Palace, Visegrád
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Mater and Late Renaissance1541-1686The country was divided into three parts, and the residential building evolved differently in all of them. Some parts had the typical castle architecture, other parts are famous for the manor houses, fortifield castles were typical for the time.Pipo fortified castle, Ozora; Károly Catle, Füzérradvány; Bethlen manor house, Bethlenszentmiklós (Romania); Sopronkeresztúr Nádasdy Manor House, Sopronkeresztúr (Austria); Bethlen Fortified Castle, Keresd (Romania); Manor House of Márkusfalva, Márkusfalva (Slovakia); Manor House of Pácin, Pácin; Rákóczi Castle, SárospatakNádasdy Manor House, Sopronkeresztúr (Austria, 1625)rectangle shaped plan, with a large inner court; one storey, with four corner towers, little windows in great distances from each otherhearths and stovesstoves were similar to stoves in nowadays, these provided the highest comfort until the 19-20th century (until the appearance of centralized heating systems); at first the performance of the stoves was low, possibly because the comfortlevel was compared to the low comfortlevels of the pastthe amount of glassed surfaces gets higher, the heat load grew in summer; but no overheating in summer Nádasdy Manor House, Sopronkeresztúr (Austria)
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Nádasdy Manor House, Sopronkeresztúr (Austria)
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Nádasdy Manor House, Sopronkeresztúr (Austria)
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V. Islamic architecture1541-1686During this period no significant residential building was built. New buildings were only built when no appropriate building was found, or when a new type of function e.g.: minarett.Rados Jenő - Magyar építészet történet, Műszaki Tankönykiadó, Budapest    
VI. Baroque architecture (1618-1795) Early Baroque1618-1711Between 1630 and 1700 there was a Turkish presence in Hungary. This uncertain situation obstructed the widespreading of baroque style. Typical were late Renaissance style buildings, residential buildings in cities, manor houses and cottages in villages. At the same time in villages the development of the Hungarian vernacular architecture began.Cottage (the oldest cottage in the Carpathian Basin), Torockó (Romania); Esterházy Manor House, Kismarton (Austria); Fabricius House, SopronFabricius House, Sopron (17th century)ghotical style elments; development in unbroken rows; building with 3 stories, atrium; walls made out of stock brickstile ovens in the corner of the bedroomsthe development in unbroken rows prevented the quick cooling down of the house; the heating of the building was easier; the stoves provided an appropriate comfort in winterthe amount of glazed surfaces gets higher, the heat load grew in summer because of this, but no overheating in summerSopron, Fabrícius-ház - Tájak Korok Múzeumok kiskönyvtára, Cartographia, Budapest, 1980Fabricius House, Sopron
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Fabricius House, Sopron
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Fabricius House, Sopron
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Mater and Late Baroque1711-1795In this period architecture was mostly defined by private constructions, little amount of residential buildings were established, mostly arisocracy was building their palaces, castles, and manor houses. At the same time we count the emergence of local vernacular architectural style in Hungary from this period.Manor houses: Manor House of Edelény, Edelény; Szavolya Manor House, Ráckeve; Ráday Manor House, Pécel; Szévheny Manor House, Nagycenk; Grassalkovich Manor House, Hatvan; Esterházy Manor House, Fetrőd-Eszterháza; Royal Manor House of Gödöllő, Gödöllő; Civil dwelling-houses: Bécsi kapu square 5; Országház street 44, the Budapest Castle HillEsterházy Manor House, Fetrőd-Eszterháza (from 1720, present day building was built from 1762 to 1766)3 stories; large internal height; detached development; U-shaped building; walls made out of stock brick; building articulations and ornamentshearths and tile stoves in the living rooms and the bedroomsthe stoves provided the highest comfort (according to the demands of this period)the amount of glazed surfaces gets higher, the heat load grew in summer because of this, but no overheating in summerhttp://www.eszterhaza.hu/kastely/eszterhazaEsterházy Manor House, Fetrőd-Eszterháza
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Esterházy Manor House, Fetrőd-Eszterháza
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Esterházy Manor House, Fetrőd-Eszterháza
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VII. Architecture of Historism and Turn of the century 1867-1914Residential buildings get bigger, tenement houses were typical in this period, at first with 3 stories, later with elevators 4-6 stories. Typical structures: iron weight-bearing structures, framework structures and reinforced concrete structures. The thickness of the load bearing walls are reduced. The facades of the building do not show the structural systems behind them. The flats of the tenement houses had several rooms, sun light, views and orientation were not aspects.tenement houses in Budapest (examples: Báthory street 20, Bedő House, Honvéd street .3); Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest; villas in Budapest (example: Babochay Villa )Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest (1908 - architect: Kós Károly)buildings made out of stock brick, 3 types of buildings: tenement house, tenement house with bachelor flats and family houses / terraced houses and semi-detached housestile stoves; gas convector heatingceramic stoves provided the highest comfort (according to the demands of this period), the specific of this stoves was the 8-10°C temperature gradient, and temperature fluctuation was normalusage of shading structures on the facade provided protection from overheatinghttp://wekerletelep.hu/diohejbanHouses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest
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Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest
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Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest
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Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest
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Houses in Wekerle Housing Settlement, Budapest
Annamária Babos
VIII. Architecture Between the Two World Wars1914-1944Private constructions turned toward the modern design. Typical buildings were the tenement houses, with indoor staircases. Other types of houses were villas and family houses.OTI Tenement Houses, Budapest; Budapest - Georgia House (architect: Baráth Béla, Novák Endre), Budaepest; Villa in Lejtő street (architect: Molnár Farkas), Budapest; Villa in Széher street (architect: Kósa Zoltán), Budapest; Villa in Berkenye street (architect: Kozma Lajos)OTI Tenement Houses with 203 flats, Budapest (architects: Árkay, Faragó, Fischer, Heysa, Ligeti, Molnár, Pogány, Preisich, Vadász - 1934)group of tenement houses; 8 stories high towards the square, 6 stories high on he other side, the complete srtuctures is supported by a slab foundation made out of reinforced concrete (80 centimeters thick); furnace room and coal bunker were in the basementdistrict heating system, boiler house and a coal bunker are in the basementspread of the centralized heating system was typical in this period; solid fuel;, gravitational or steam heated systems; controling these systems was hard, but it provided an appropriate temperature; the temperature fluctuation was 2-3 °Cusage of shading structures on the facade provided protection from overheatinghttp://www.urb.bme.hu/segedlet/szakmernoki1/szakdolgozatok_2012/2012_junius_26/IvanyiGyongyver2012.pdfOTI Tenement Houses, Budapest
Annamária Babos
OTI Tenement Houses, Budapest
Annamária Babos
OTI Tenement Houses, Budapest
Annamária Babos
OTI Tenement Houses, Budapest
Annamária Babos
IX. Architecture of the Socialism1945-1989Shortage of flats is the most important preblem in this period. To solve this problem precaste building were built - large panel structures and standard designs. The housing estates show the conceptiual thinking of urban planningSettlements: József Attila Settlement, Budapest - district IX; Havanna Settlement, Budapest - district XVIII; Tenement Houses in Budapest: Úri street 32. (architect: Farkasdy Zoltán); Úri street 26-28. (architect: Horváth Lajos KÖZTI); Lévay street 8. (architect: Varga Levente)József Attila Settlement, Budapest (1957-1967 and 1979-1981)loose layout of buildings, large green surfaces; 10 and 4 storey buildings; precast large panel structuredistrict heating systemcentralized heating system, usually with an inappropriate setup, the temperatures of the dwellings was different, the system could not be controled from the units, usually the lower sories were colder, the higher sories were warmer than requiredthe protection form overheating was not provided, people did not use outside shading structuresRados Jenő - Magyar építészet történet, Műszaki Tankönykiadó, BudapestJózsef Attila Settlement, Budapest
Annamária Babos
József Attila Settlement, Budapest
Annamária Babos
József Attila Settlement, Budapest
Annamária Babos
József Attila Settlement, Budapest
Annamária Babos
X. Contemporary architectureConventional Houses1989-In the contemporary architectrure of residential houses the architectural intention and the functional design, are achieved simultaniously and in regard to the inhabitants needs.Family House, Piliscsaba - Pest Region (architect: Kolossa József, Kolossáné Bartha Katalin); Guesthouse, Pécs - Baranya Region (architects: Ásztai Bálint and Kovács Csaba); Family House, Nagykovácsi, Pest Region (architects: Földes László and Balogh Csaba); Family House, Budakeszi, Pest Region (architects: Bártfai-Szabó Gábor, Bártfai-Szabó Orsolya); Apertment house, Budapest, district II. (architect: Tomay Tamás)Family House, Piliscsaba - Pest Region (2009)foundations: concrete strip foundation and pad footing, ascending structures: POROTHERM 30, 38 - supporting wall, reinforced concrete circular pillars, slab: precast beams, with weight secondary blocks, and reinforced concrete, insulation material: in the roof structure - 17-20 centimeters rock wool, in the wall - 6 centimeters rock wool insulation, facade is made out of Wienerberger VALERIAN facing brickwork, roof structure: conventional wood framework, Antracit coloured ceramic tile covering, windows and doors: 4-6-4 thick insulative glazingsingle, combined gas equipment; heat transfer by sheet radiator; network material is coated copper heating pipe; the equipment is controlled by indoor thermostat; thermostatic radiator valves are used in the kitchen and the bathrooms; backup heating is provided by electric heating systemindividual, or central radiator heating, the annual heating energy demand is 150 kW/m2the bigger amount of glazed surfaces and the higher comfort demands cause a demand for cooling; outside shading structures are not always applied Family House, Piliscsaba - Pest Region
Tamás Bujnovszky
Family House, Piliscsaba - Pest Region
Tamás Bujnovszky
Family House, Piliscsaba - Pest Region
Tamás Bujnovszky
Passive Houses2009-low energy demand houses; the pleasent inside air-condition can be provided without an active heating and cooling system; the term passive can be used; when a building is qualified by the german Passivhaus Institute and by the Passivhaus Dienstleistung Gmbh; the quailfied passive houses have to comply with german standard; heating energy demand is lower than 15 kWh/(m² year), total primary energy demand is lower than 120 kWh/(m²year); air density is maximum 0,6 1/h; the world's first passive house was built in Darmstad 1990detached passive family house (concrete structure, with insulation), Szada - Pest Region; detached passive family house Orosháza, Békés Region; semi-detached passive house (concrete structure, with insulation, Fót - Pest Region; passive family house (concrete structure, with insulation), Páty - Pest Region; terraced house (stock brick structure), Dunakeszi - Pest Region; detached passive family house (stock brick structure), Szeged - Csongrád RegionQualified passive house, Budaörs - Pest Region (2011)structures are perfectly insulated, with an air dense and heat-bridge free building shell, 30 centimeters graphite heat insulation is mounted on the premiter wall, 50 centimeters of heat insulation on the upper closing slab, 27 centimeters of heat insulation under the floor; the forming of the building is compact, its orientation is southern, it has a rectangle shaped plan; the structural system is a reinforced concrete slab foundation, water proof reinforced concrete walls in the basement, Ytong block walls on the perimeter, reinforced concrete slabs on every storey, shading: motorized roller blinds and motorized blinds, so that the building has a controlable shading in every climatic conditionSpecific heating (and cooling) power demand: 14 kWh/m2 year, Heat required for heating: 12 W/m2, Power demand of cooling: 5 W/m2 Engineering systems: heat pump, floor tempering, low temperature ceiling heating and cooling; solar panel for creating domestic hot water (DHW) supply with buffer storage, filled up by heat pump in sun-free periods; power supply concept of the house is based on geothermal energy (air-to-water geo collector system) and solar energy use (with pumps, heat exchangers and heat pump); future electric energy supply is planned by using solar energy produced by photovoltaic solar panelsthe highest indoor comfort, regarding the air quality, the air temperature and the temperature gradient; the indoor comfort colud not be developed more (regarding the air quality); compared to the conventional houses, the heating energy demand is less - 1/10 ! (true only for family houses)low amount of the heat loss, a greater need of attention on outside shading structures; the demand of cooling gets more importanthttp://epiteszforum.hu/minositett-passzivhaz-budaorsonQualified passive house, Budaörs - Pest Region
Zsolt Batárhttp://epiteszforum.hu/minositett-passzivhaz-budaorson
Qualified passive house, Budaörs - Pest Region
Zsolt Batárhttp://epiteszforum.hu/minositett-passzivhaz-budaorson
Qualified passive house, Budaörs - Pest Region
Zsolt Batárhttp://epiteszforum.hu/minositett-passzivhaz-budaorson


Studying the sample buildings from the different time periods, significant differences can be discovered through time regarding the condition of air in the interior. The research shows, that the interior spaces of the houses could be temperated more and more precisely throughout the history. For example 70 years ago 2-3 °C fluctuation in air temperature was considered normal in heating season, however, the temperature fluctuation nowadays is only 0,3 °C.

The breakdown of eras in the book „Magyar építészettörténet” by Jenő Rados (History of Hungarian Architecture) was used as a basis for determining the chronological units to be studied. In order to be clear and complete this book handles the periods of the Hungarian history complete with the periods of the history of architecture, and demonstrates the most conspicuous characteristics of these periods with sample buildings.

In contrast to the materials in the literatures used, this chapter only concentrates on the built residential buildings. The original subdivisions from the Rados-book have been changed due to the concentration on the residential function: the architecture of classicism, romanticism and eclecticism units can be found merged under the name ’Architecture of Historicism and Turn of the century’ in Table 2., because the sample buildings from these periods do not shows any differences regarding the condition of interior air. The other 9 periods stayed unchanged. The table does not contain any data from Islamic architecture, during this period there was no significant residential building built. The original chronological breakdown ending with the era Architecture of the Socialism, was complemented with the Period of Contemporary Architecture, which is relevant to the curriculum.

All of the sub-periods from the table, and their general architectural characteristics, are presented with sample buildings. At each of the sub-periods, one typical sample building is detailed with information for an analysis. The structure, the heating system and the condition of air in summer and in winter time are detailed about this building in the table.

We can follow the technological development in this table, and as a result the improvement of the condition of interior comfort. It is surprising, that when compared, the centralized heating system used between the Two World Wars was a much more comfortable solution then the heating system of the pre-fabricated panel buildings in the period of the Socialism. The configuration of the district heating system coming as a component with the large pre-fabricated panel system, was often constructed incorrectly. This caused a non-equable interior condition of air in parts of the building, and as a result of the lack of facade shadings the buildings were overheated in summer.

An other curiosity is coming from the medieval ages when the members of higher social classes were living in keeps, where the temperatures were between 0 and 10 °C , at the same time in villages in the farmer’s bunker houses the condition of interior air was a more comfortable 20 to 22 °C. The table shows clearly: the comfort demands of the living spaces have changed throughout the history!

In the past people often compensated the unpleasant temperatures in the living spaces with additional methods, for example with the use of wall carpets, thicker bed linens or layered clothing. Nowadays humans’ willingness to adapt to extreme values of air conditions is decreasing. In contrast to solutions from the past, people of today want to reach the comfortable temperature sensation for themselves by adjusting the exact extent of the heating or cooling, as opposed to for example wearing appropriately layered clothing in lower temperated situations. The change of habits is worth considering. In an average Hungarian dwelling-house during wintertime keeping the interior temperatures 1 °C lover than usual can result in a 10% reduction of energy usage for this time period.

Interior areas are protected from the external environmental effects by the building’s outer shell. The external environmental effects are determined by the climatic conditions of the given areas. These climatic conditions have an impact on the energies entering a building.

This chapter shows the relations between climatic conditions and their effects on the building’s energy use. The aim of this chapter is to draw attention to the influence of the climatic conditions on the possible energy gain of buildings and on the proper construction of the building structures and shells.

Definitions of the meteorological terms are explained based on the book titled ’Éghajlattan’ written by György Péczely.

Even though climate is a complex phenomenon a demand for the systematization of different climates based on their similarities and the territorial distribution of the climatic types was revealed during the first period of the organized climatic data collection at the end of the 19th century. It’s obvious that climate classifications are only stereotyped versions of the reality. These classifications are limited to underline some of the most determinative factors and create a spatial distinction. The practical usability of the climatic classifications usually depends on the selected factors used to define the climatic types.

The basis of every climatic classification is the thermal zonality and the climatic events based on this zonality. Different classifications list the same main climatic zones: 1. tropical, 2. subtropical, 3. temperate, 4. subarctic, 5. polar. Moreover it is reasonable to separate a highland climate zone in the area higher mountains, although highland climate is not an individual climatic zone, it is a special local version within the main climatic zones.

The listed five main climatic zones can be divided into further climatic types according to the annual course of temperature, the typical extremes of the annual course of temperature, the annual precipitation amount and its seasonal distribution. György Péczely modified and improved the Trewartha climatic classification for it to be more like the real climatic conditions. This modified classification can be seen in the following:


A) tropical climates
A1.) tropical rainforest
A2.) savanna
A3) tropical dry savanna
A4.) low latitudes
A4a.) zonal deserts
A4b.) cool coastal deserts near cold ocean currents
B) subtropical climates
B5.) subtropical steppe
B6.) Mediterranean
B6a.) hot-summer Mediterranean
B6b.) cool-summer Mediterranean
B7.) humid subtropical
C) temperate climates
C8.) maritime temperate
C9.) humid continental climate with longer warm season
C10.) humid continental climate with shorter warm season and cold winter
C11.) temperate steppe
C12.) temperate desert
D) subarctic climates
C13.) maritime subarctic
C14.) continental subarctic
E) polar climates
E15.) tundra
E16.) ice cap
F) highland climates
F17.) tropical highland
F18.) temperate highland

Table 3. - Climatic Conditions and their Effects presents – based on the modified Trewartha climatic classification by György Péczely – the characteristics of the different climatic types and their effects on the construction of building shells. In this table every climate type is described with representative factors e.g.: average yearly precipitation sum, precipitation amount in summer and winter, wind (circulation) in summer and winter, temperature, mean temperature of the warmest and the coldest month. Moreover this table also reveals the effects of different climate types on the building energetics.

Table 3.1. Table No 3.

climatic zoneclimate typeaverage yearly precipitation sum (mm)precipitation amount - summerprecipitation amount - winterwind (circulation) - summer wind (circulation) - wintertemperature valuemean temperature of the warmest month (°C)mean temperature of the coldest month (°C) / mean temperature of the coldest month (°C)effects of climate on building energy in summereffects of climate on building energy in winterexample buildinglocationdescriptioncode of the picturessource of the picturespicture / drawing byhabitatio link
A) tropical climates1.) tropical rainforest climateevery season is wet, average annual amount above 1500 mm precipitation maximum occur during the time of the highest sun positionevery season is wetmostly Inter Tropical Coinveregence Zone (ITCZ) and equatorial west wind zone annual mean temperature at least 22 °C, avarage annual fluctuation under 5 °C n.a.above 18°C heavy rain and floods decrease the life expectancy, thin perimeter structures without any heat-insulating structure due to a perennial warm weather, no heating or cooling demandKorowai treehousesouthwestern regions of the island of New Guinea; West Irian province - Indonesia (Oceania)inside the rainforests; wood hut located on the trunks of trees (8 - 25 meters and simetimes 50 meters high) due to the protection from floods; a hut is divided into 2 or 3 rectangular units
http://www.georgesteinmetz.com/index.phpGeorg Steinmetzhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/34993562526/v-40-korowai-treehouse-korowai-terulet
2.) savanna climateaverage annual amount between 500 - 1500 mm summer is the rainy season, the avarage precipitation maximum is above 60 mm at least in 3 monthswinter is the dry season, the avarage precipitation maximum is under 20 mm at least in 3 months Inter Tropical Coinveregence Zone (ITCZ) in the rainy season, equatorial west wind is typical (less than 8 months)east winds of the trade wind zone are typica in the dry season avarage annual fluctuation between 5 - 15 °C above 28°Cabove 18°C, never goes below 12°C increased cooling demand in summer, materials with good thermal storage capacity, only a few openings or no openings at all (small openings near the ground cause a fall in the indoor temperature), watertight structures due to bigger amount of precipitationno heating demand, inhabitants spend their time outside even in winter (e.g.: cook outside) Wewewa houseWest Sumba - Indonesia ( Asia)three storey house built on piles; organic materials (wood, bamboo, liane, grass etc.)
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Joanna Mross http://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/53514782811/v-35-wewewa-haz-wewewa-teruletek-nyugat-sumba
www.flickr.comNao Nishimiya
Christophe Cerisier
Gurunsi earthhouseBurkina Faso; Ghana (Africa)adobe brick from soil mixed with clay, straw and cow manure; wooden roof stucture; small openings near the ground
http://www.designboom.com/architecture/gurunsi-earth-houses-of-burkina-faso/Rita Willaerthttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/42207617442/maja
Scott Worthington
Norbert Schoenauer: 6000 Years of Housing, Garland STPM Press, 1981Norbert Schoenauer
Maya house South Mexico; Guatemala; Belize; El Salvador; western regions of Honduras (Central America)mixed building materials; wall structures from wooden beams, stones and soil infill
www.flickr.comDennis Jarvishttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/44931669487/v-18-gurunsi-foldhazak-gurunsi-terulet-burkina
Plant Design Online
www.travelpicturesbyjimoliver.wordpress.comJim Oliver
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997González Claverán
3.) tropical dry savanna climate average annual amount between 200 - 500 mm, erratic fluctuationsa short, 1 or 2 months long wet perioda short, 1 or 2 months long wet periodseveral months without rain mostly part of the trade wind zone,under the influence of Inter Tropical Coinveregence Zone (ITCZ) in summeravarage annual fluctuation between 5 - 15 °C above 28°Cabove 18°C, never goes below 12°C structures with good thermal storage capacity and few openings or hot air permeable materials due to swelters (sometimes between 40°C and 50°C in the daytime ); protection against sandstorm in the deserts no heating demand due to a comfortable temprerature in winterAfar tentregion of the Danakil Desert: Djibouti; South-east Eritrea;North-east Ethiopia (Africa)portable hut; 1,6 - 2,2 meters high and 15 m2; fireplace located close to the doorportable hut; 1,6 - 2,2 meters high and 15 m2; fireplace located close to the door
www.flickr.comEric Lafforgue http://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/37474091510/afar-tent
Linda De Volder
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Fasil Giorghis
Bandiagara escarpmentMali; Burkina Faso (Africa)villages are located at the bottom of the cliffs; houses made of stone and adobe
www.panoramio.comHuib Blomhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/45432730469/v-17-bandiagara-sziklalakasok-dogon-teruletek
Norbert Schoenauer: 6000 Years of Housing, Garland STPM Press, 1981Norbert Schoenauer
4.) climates of the low latitudes4a.) climate of zonal deserts average annual amount under 200 mm, most of this precipitation amount is coused by infrequent showers no typical seasonal distribution of rain under the influence of trade wind zone or subtropical anticyclone (high pressure area), western winds all year longavarage annual fluctuation between 5-15°Cabove 28°Cabove 12°Cshading, light admitting and conveying structures; protection against sandstorms caused by strong winds; demand for watertight structures due to infequent but intensive showersBeduin black tentNorth Africa (Africa); Arabian Peninsula (Asia)air coveying and shading thin perimeter woven canvas from goat (sometimes camel or sheep) fur supported by wooden pillars
www.flickr.comyeowatzuphttp://habitatio2.blogspot.hu/2011/03/indian-foldhaz.html
John Gravett
fvfavo
Norbert Schoenauer: 6000 Years of Housing, Garland STPM Press, 1981Norbert Schoenauer
Navajo hoganArizona, USA (North America)cirlcle or ploygon (diameter 3-4 meters); lattice work supporting structure with partial or total ground covering
http://www.normankoren.comNorman Korenhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/41564038265/v-25-beduin-fekete-sator-beduin-teruletek
http://links.mana-the-movie.com/hogan.htmSuzanne Eltsosie
Asir houseAsir province - Saudi Arabia (Asia)square; three storey; 10-12 meters high building with quarry-stone fundation, stone plinth, adobe walls
www.flickr.comEric Lafforguehttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/51417440428/v-28-aszir-haz-aszir-terulet-aszir-tartomany
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Jon F. Lavelle
4b.) climates of cool coastal deserts near cold ocean currentsaverage annual amount under 50 mm, predominantly from fog condensation no typical seasonal distribution of rain easterly wind of the trade wind zone avarage annual fluctuation between 5 - 10 °C between 17 - 23°C between 12 - 16°C no cooling or shading demand due to a comfortable temperature in summer thin, non-waterthight perimeter structures due to a warm winter and low amount of precipitation all the yearuninhabitad areas ( e.g.: Atacama Desert, Namib Desert ), at present there are a few settlements on the coast; sings of previous life can be found in the inner areas (e.g.: Atacama Desert/ Pukara de Quitor/ ruins of a previous fortress)uninhabitad areas ( e.g.: Atacama Desert, Namib Desert ), at present there are a few settlements on the coast; sings of previous life can be found in the inner areas (e.g.: Atacama Desert/ Pukara de Quitor/ ruins of a previous fortress)----
B) subtropical climates5.) subtropical steppebetween 200 - 500 mm summer months without rain short, 1 or 2 months long wet perioddry trade wind zone or subtropical high pressure zone most of the year, west wind zone in winter n.a.average above 28°C, hot summerbetween 6 - 12°C perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity and small windows due to a hot summer no heating demand due to a warmer winter; structure with good thermal storage capacityTunisian pit houseMatmata region - Tunisia (Africa)artificial pit house dug into the smooth, sandstone mountains; irregular circle pit as a patio/back yard artificial pit house dug into the smooth, sandstone mountains; irregular circle pit as a patio/back yard
www.flickr.comMalcolm Botthttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/50853961914/v-26-mudhif-mocsari-arab-madan-teruletek
Patrick
__Rico__
www.buildingreenfutures.orgGuido Moretti
MudhifCentral, Hammar and Hawizeh marshes - Iraq (Asia) reed house on artificial islands made from mud and reed; houses in different sizes but with similar constructions
www.lejournaldelaphotographie.comNik Wheeler http://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/53863656389/tuneziai-godor-haz
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Anthony Quiney
6.) mediterranean6a.) hot-summer mediterranean climateaverage annual amount is between 500 - 1000 mm summer is the dry season, at least in 3 months the avarage precipitation maximum is under 20 mm winter is the rainy season, at least in 3 months the avarage precipitation maximum is above 60 mm under the influence of subtropical high pressure zone under the influence of extratropical west wind zoneannual mean temperature above 14 °Cabove 22°C above 4°C outer perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity due to a warm summer no need of thick heat-insulating perimeter structures due to a warmer winter Beehive houseIraq; Syria; southeastern regions of Turkey (Asia)walls from sun dried or doubed adobe bricks; domes stand on the ground in Syria; domes stand on vertical walls in the southeastern regions of Turkey
www.worldkaztour.kzpublic domain http://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/51986254572/v-24-mehkas-alaku-haz-terulet-irak-sziria
www.flickr.comFO Travel
Istvánfi Gyula: Őskor-Népi építészet, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2000Istvánfi Gyula
6b.) cool-summer mediterranean climateaverage annual amount is between 500 - 1000 mm frequent fog formationwinter is the rainy season, at least in 3 months the avarage precipitation maximum is above 60 mm under the influence of subtropical high pressure zone, cold sea flowsunder the influence of extratropical west wind zonen.a.under 22°C, relatively coldabove 4°C thicker outer perimeter structure due to a colder summerno need of thick heat-insulating perimeter structure due to a warmer winter Palloza stonehousesVillarello, Xantes, Donis, Piornedo,Moreira - Spain (Europe)circle (avarage diameter: 10-12 meters), elliptical or oval shape; 2 meters high and 1 meter thick walls; wooden hip roof with straw roofing
www.panoramio.commaiscargadadebombohttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/44241066620/palozza
www.deconcrete.orgn.a.
7.) humid subtropical climatebetween 1000 - 1500 mm maximum precipitation in summer minimum precipitation in winterwest wind zone, monsoon effectannual mean temperature above 14 °Cabove 22°C above 6°C shading stuctures or narrow windows due to the strong sunshine, large amount of percipitation will influence the perimeter structureno need of thick heat-insulating perimeter structure due to a warmer winterGassho-style minkaShirakawa-go and Gokayama villages - central region of the island of Honshu, Japan (Asia)lattice work supporting structure; reed roof with 60° pitch, indoor area divided into a soil paved area and a raised wooden paved area
www.commons.wikimedia.orgBernard Gagnonhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/47046478897/minka
-Bessenyei Krisztina
www.yasupa.wordpress.comYasupa
www.takayamaryokan.jpToshikazu Takahashi
Fujian Tulousoutheastern regions of Fujian province - China (Asia)8-10 meters high; 60-70 meters in diameter; 2 meters tick wall from fluvial stones or granite until the 2nd meter in height; above, 1 m tick soil wall reinforced with a mixture of sand, clay and lime, vertically strenghtend with bamboo sticks ; loophole openings
www.flickr.comJohn Meckleyhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/37473618396/tulou
christieandsteve
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Wu Qingzhou
C) temperate climates8.) maritime temperate climatebetween 600 - 2000 mmhomogeneous annual distribution, precipitation minimum in spring, precipitation maximum in fallall time of the year under the influence of west wind and mid-latitude cycloneannual mean temperature above 8 °C, avarage annual fluctuation under 15 °C between 14 - 18°Cbetween 1 - 6°Cimpermeable stuctures and few openings due to uniformly high precipitation, heating demand in summer, no heating demand in winterHaida houseHaida Gwaii/ Queen Charlotte Islands - British Columbia, Canada; USA (North America)built out of the light, strong, not decaying giant thuja; square shaped building; double pitch roof is typical; the fireplace is in a recessed middle indoor area
Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Bill Reidhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/41553893598/haida
http://intelligenttravel.nationalgeographic.com/Rainer Jenss
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Tara Michele Cahn
Scottish blackhouseHebrides - Scotland (Europe)2 m thick stone walls with ground, truf and derbis infill and without mortar; no tie beam in the roof stucture; grass and reef roofing; natural light comes only through the door; a fireplace in the middle of the livingroom
www.flickr.comAndrew Bennett 
http://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/49723834583/skot
Istvánfi Gyula: Őskor-Népi építészet, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2000Istvánfi Gyula
9.) humid continental climate with longer warm seasonbetween 500 - 1000 mmprecipitation maximum in summerprecipitation minimum in winter, springall the year under the influence of west wind and mid-laitude cycloneaverage annual fluctuation between 15 - 30 °C above 18 °Cabove -3 °Cperimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity due to a small-scaled cooling demandmainly thick outer perimeter structure with good heat-insulating properties and good thermal storage capacity, normal heating demand due to a milder winter, no extreme effects of wind or percipitationWestern Transdanubia - dwelling- houseŐrség region- Vas County, Hungary; Göcsej and Hetés regions - Zala County,Hungary (Europe)roughly faced log walls made out of coniferous wood on oak sole; mud doub and limy walls; reed roofing
-Babos Annamáriahttp://skanzen.hu/?fm=article&id=150
Mongolian YurtMongolia (Asia); Carpathian Basin (Europe)foldable and transportable structures; walls made out of struts with felt covering; dome shaped roof stucture; cirlce shaped structure; mongolian yurt looks like 'jurta' used by the Hungarians during their settelments time
www.reuters.com Carlos Barria http://galeria.index.hu/kulfold/2013/08/07/ulanbatort_ujra_ellepik_a_jurtak/
Felső-Tisza region - dwelling-houseFelső-Tisza region - northeastern region of Hungary (Europe)lattice work wall stucture with clay poached wicker; later from adobe bricks
-Babos Annamáriahttp://skanzen.hu/?fm=article&id=146
Balaton Uplands - dwelling-houseBakony hills - Balaton Uplands, Hungary (Europe)dwelling-house with 3 or more rooms; smoky kitchen; stacked stone walls from yellow or grey lime, dolomit, red sandstone or black basalt; hardwood roof stucture and slab
-Babos Annamáriahttp://skanzen.hu/?fm=article&id=149
10.) humid continental climate with shorter warm season and cold winterbetween 400 - 800 mmsummer precipitation at maximum winter precipitation at minimumextratropical west wind zone influence all of the year, periodical easterly wind zone effects in summeravarage annual fluctuation above 30 °C above 18°Cunder 0°Cno cooling demand mainly thick outer perimeter structure with good heat-insulating properties and good thermal storage capacity; stronger heating demand due to a colder winter; no extreme effects of wind or precipitationSetesdal farmsteadAust-Agder county - Norway (Europe)houses built from coniferous wood beams; premises: hall, chamber and living room; a fireplace is in the middle of the livingroom
www.flickr.comGreg Emelhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/47646183972/v-12-setesdal-tanya-setesdal-terulet
www.norskfolkemuseum.noAnne-Lise Reinsfelt
www.digitaltmuseum.noNorsk Folkemuseum
11.) temperate steppe climatebetween 200 - 500 mm precipitation maximum in summer or spring precipitation minimum in winter extratropical west wind zone influence all of the year, sometimes monsoon effectavarage annual fluctuation above 30 °C above 22°C between -5°C and -25°C no cooling demand thicker, outer perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity Tehuelche toldoPatagonia (South America)simple tent with a smaller indoor area (10-15 m2); covering from jacket; wooden pillar support elements under the covering; one side of the tent is open
http://www.uni-ak.ac.at/culture/Univ.-Lekt. Prof. Erwin Melchardt http://habitatio2.blogspot.hu/2011/04/tehuelche-toldo.html
12.) temperate desert climateunder 200 mmpredominantly drypredominantly dryextratropical west wind zoneavarage annual fluctuation above 40 °C above 22°C between 5 - 30°C air conveying materials to cool inside areas thicker, outer perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity made out of multiple layers of air conveying materials due to colder winters Turkmen yurtTurkmenistan; Afghanistan; Turkey; Iran, Pakistan (Asia)poplar or willow skeleton; wool covering is fixed with ropes and belts; the top of the roof can be opened to let the light in and let the smoke outpoplar or willow skeleton; wool covering is fixed with ropes and belts; the top of the roof can be opened to let the light in and let the smoke out
www.wdl.orgSergey Prokudin-Gorskyhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/40435529147/v-29-turkmen-jurta-turkmen-teruletek
Paul Oliver: Dwellings, Phaidron Press Limited, 2003Paul Oliver
D) subarctic climates13.) maritime subarctic climatebetween 600 - 1200 mmhomogeneous annual distribution, precipitation maximum in spring and fall polar west wind zoneextratropical west wind zonen.a.between 6 - 14°C between -10 - 1°Coccasional heating demand due to a colder summerthicker outer perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity due to a colder winter; strong heating demandTraditional Turf HousesIceland - e.g.:Glaumbaer ranch (Europe)long house with a double pitch roof; wooden and soil stuctures with icelandic grass covering
www.flickr.com*heloisehttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/49042543662/v-11-izlandi-gyephaz-izlandi-terulet-103-000
Andrea Carolfi
www.thjodveldisbaer.isn.a.
14.) continental subarctic climatebetween 200 - 500 mmsummer precipitation is typicallow amount of winter precipitationpolar west wind zoneextratropical west wind zoneavarage annual fluctuation above 40 °C between 10 - 16°Cbetween -25°C and -50°Coccasional heating demand due to a colder summerthicker outer perimeter, layered heat-insulating structures due to a colder winter, strong heating demand, inhabitants usually sleep by the fireSami lavvuNorway; Sweden; Finnland (Europe); northern regions of Russia (Asia)tent can be built up quickly; ears as supporting stuctures covered with jacket, coarse weave linen or birchbark; the top of the tent is open; paving from bark or twigs; fireplace in the middle tent can be built up quickly; ears as supporting stuctures covered with jacket, coarse weave linen or birchbark; the top of the tent is open; paving from bark or twigs; fireplace in the middle
www.wikipedia.orgpublic domainhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/34989973212/lavvu
www.flickr.comAndy Porter
Percita Dittmar
E) polar climates15.) tundra climateunder 250 mmsummer precipitation is typicaln.a.polar west wind zoneextratropical west wind zonen.a.between 0 - 10°C, the monthly mean temperature is above 0 °C maximum in a 3 months long periodabout -50°C occasional heating demand due to a colder summerthicker outer perimeter structure with good thermal storage capacity due to a cold winter, strong heating demand Chukchi valkaranEast Russia;Chukotka - Far Eastern Federal District, Russia (Asia)semi-subterranean dwelling-house constructed from whale jaws and ribs; covered with soil and grass; square shaped building; dome shaped roof structure; paving from bones and twigs; fireplace in the middlesemi-subterranean dwelling-house constructed from whale jaws and ribs; covered with soil and grass; square shaped building; dome shaped roof structure; paving from bones and twigs; fireplace in the middle
www.hrenovina.netMajik Imaje 
Steven J. Kazlowskihttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/50101293447/v-30-csukcs-valkaran-csukcs-terulet
16.)ice cap climateunder 100 mmaccumulation of snow progressively becomes iceall the year under the influence of polar west wind zone n.a.under 0°C n.a.structure with good thermal storage and heat-insulating capacity due to a perennial blanket of snowInuit iglooUSA; Canada; northern regions of Greenland (North America); Russia (Asia)dome shaped shelters made out of compressed snow and ice
http://www.arcticphoto.co.ukBryan & Cherry Alexander http://habitatio000.blogspot.hu/2011/02/inuit-iglu-inuit-igloo.html?utm_source=BP_recent
F) highland climates17.) tropical highland climaten.a.snow line above 4000 mn.a.daily fluctuation grows with altitude under 10°C annual mean temperature lowers 0,5°C/100 mouter perimeter structures and the heating demands depend on the vertical location of the building; basically strong heating demand is typical in every season; outer perimeter structure with a good heat-insulating properties and a good thermal storage capacity Dorze hutSouth Ethiopia (Africa)bamboo or hardwood pillars knitted with bamboo wattles; this wall stucture is insulated with grass and covered wild banana leaves; clay paving
www.flickr.comFreBeBoshttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/37474507875/dorze
Kevin Smith
ngaire lawson
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Cambridge University Press, 1997Elias Yitbarek
Maasai hutKenya;Tanzania (Africa)small, indefinite shaped, 1,5 meters high, 3x5 meters large; lattice work supporting structure with an infill from mud, grass, ash, cow manure and twings
www.megapixeltravel.comRon Hayhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/37637182002/maszaj
www.leeandmelindavarian.comMelinda Avarian
www.flickr.comMaurits Vermeulen
Paul Oliver: Dwellings, Phaidron Press Limited, 2003Paul Oliver
18.) temperate highland climaten.a.precipitation amount grows until a definite altitude, if the mountain is high enough the precipitation amount lowers approaching the peak n.a.daily fluctuation grows with altitude under 10°C annual mean temperature lowers 0,5°C/100 mVainakh medieval towerChechnya and Ingushetia - North Caucasian Federal District, Russia (Europe)6x6 meters large, three or four storey dwelling-towers with stone walls and wooden slabs
www.wangfolyo.blogspot.huIlya Varlamovhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/43166478590/v-27-vainakh-nemzetsegi-tornyok-vainakh


The aim of the research was to find and study representative buildings from the different climatic areas. The contents of this chapter can be illustrated best by the examples of vernacular architecture of different climatic areas, due to the fact that vernacular architecture responds the most conspicuously to the external effects of the environment. It is interesting to observe how sensitively the vernacular architecture reacts - opposite to the contemporary mostly non site-specific, fashionist architecture - to the environment of their buildings. Hopefully this site-specific knowledge of the vernacular architecture, which could intuitively form a local cultural environment, can be revitalized by the methods of the site-specific planning.

Based on the listed buildings, it can be defined how the different climatic conditions influence the energy use of the buildings in summer and winter. Moreover the different cultural backgrounds and local building materials also have an influence on the architectural characteristics of the presented buildings. During the research it has become clear that in the various climatic areas fundamental differences can be observed in the constructions of the buildings and the building’s outer shells.

The listed climatic types were correlated to the Hungarian conditions. The climate of Hungary is temperate, humid continental climate with a longer warm season, compared to the other climatic types medium temperature values are characteristic without extreme wind or precipitation conditions.

There is at least one example from the local vernacular architecture to every climatic type. When there were more examples found, buildings built from different building materials can be studied and compared within a climatic type.

Besides the location a general description of the main structures and building materials can be found in the table on the example buildings. It can be seen from the table that for example buildings built out of soil in the areas of the tropic, temperate or tundra climate differ from the adobe and soil structures used in the Hungarian vernacular architecture.

From the interior temperature values of the presented buildings listed in the last two columns it can be seen that climatic conditions have a great effect on the users’ demands on the comfort requirements with the interior spaces. It is astonishing how many people in the other parts of the world live in extreme conditions compared to the listed characteristic of interior temperature values in Hungary.

The various outer perimeter structures of the listed buildings demonstrate that climatic conditions not only influence the energies entering the building, they also have a huge impact on the outer shells and other structures of the buildings. Moreover, climatic conditions have an effect on the inhabitants’ demands on the requirements about their living environment.

The previous chapter showed, to what measure the climatic conditions of specific climates can effect the energies entering the building and the configuration of the buildings’ outer shells and other structures. This chapter deals with climate of smaller places within a climate zone. It gives insight into the different environmental effects on a building within a climate zone, and into what influence these different effects can have on a building configuration from the viewpoint of building engineering.

Specifically scaled climatic phenomena can be matched to the extents of regions on Earth’s surface. The measure of extent counts both in the horizontal and in the vertical direction. There is no understanding amongst specialists in the determination of the spatial limits of climatic phenomena.

The fundament of the study is the classification of Japanese researcher Masatoshi Yoshino, which shows the different climatic phenomena’s vertical and horizontal dimensions.

This classification can be observed on Illustration 6. - Spatial dimensions of climatic events.


Matching the climatic categories determined by Yoshino with spatial scales was accomplished by Hungarian professor György Koppány, on Illustration 7. - Spatial scales of clime categories. Within the global climate of Earth, three main categories exists related to the climatic phenomena’s spatial dimensions: macro-, meso- and microclimate. This curricula – because of its small extent – does not address the phenomena of microclimate.


The zonal climate discussed in the previous chapter belongs to the group of macro climates, which is the zonal order of climatic components. The characteristic of regional climate, which belongs into the class of macro climate is, that in addition to climate determining factors, it also takes the major separate surface units and the effects created by them into consideration.

Showed in the 3. chapter, Péczely’s modified Trewartha climate classification regarding the zonal climate of Hungary determines two climate areas: most of the area of the country is in ’humid continental climate with longer warm season’ climate area, and only the north-eastern part of the country and the higher mountain areas with colder winters belong to ’humid continental climate with shorter warm season and cold winter’. György Péczely has already shown, if we applied the climate classification created for global systematization to the area of Hungary, it would be unable to reveal those relatively small, and yet well sensible climatic differences, that exist in the country.

György Péczely set up a new system of viewpoints for the more precise determination of Hungarian areas’ climatic regions. He studied the different areas water- and heat balance, than made up 16 combinations from their degrees. In Hungary he observed 12 of them, and based on these, he determined Hungary’s climate areas. Illustration 8. - György Péczely’s clime classification in Hungary. This climatic classification is already more particular, takes the regional qualities into account, but then it still remains on the level of macroclimate.


Towards even more site specific and precise data, the chapter discusses local- and topoclimate within mesoclimate. The local climate is a climate that periodically changes compared to its surroundings due to the effect of cities, lakes and topography. Topoclimate is a climate with even finer structural differences within the previous climate.

We can define the notion of topoclimate, on the same spatial dimension as meso- and microclimate. Topoclimatology is a fast developing discipline of climatology. It denotes climate of small areas where climatic differences can constantly be revealed between these areas and their environment, therefore they have an individual climate.

Table 4. - Topoclimates and their Effects shows to what measure the macroclimatic conditions alter in different locations. The object of the study is the data related to temperature in different topographical situations – mountain peak, knoll, southern slope, northern slope, built environment, forest, plain area, waterfront and valley. It’s visible, how the different mesoclimate - influenced outdoor environmental effects can manipulate the energies entering the building, the building service engineering configuration and the building’s outer shell. These statements are supported by a Polish research. In a town near Krakow, they measured the different temperatures in different topographical situations. The data recorded in the research demonstrates by precise value the differences caused by mesoclimates.

Table 4.1. Table No 4.

local climateenvironmental effectsbuilding energy effects of local climatesexamples of vernacular architecture on savannah climate code of the picturessource of the picturespicture/drawing bymap linkhabitatio link
mountain peak, plateau, hilltopeffected by the greatest amount of solar radiation; typically a warm area, depending on the altitude (0,5-0,7 °C temperature decrease per 100 meters), also depending on the material of the ground surfacedurable structures due to high wind speeds; possible need of outside shading due to the high amount of solar radiationZafimaniry wooden houses
www.flickr.comcopepodohttp://goo.gl/maps/OGgcThttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/50100756804/v-23-zafimaniry-fahazak-zafimaniry-teruletek
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the WorldDaniel Coulaud - Cambridge University Press, 1998
slopesouthern slopeeffected by the greatest amount of solar radiation; typically a warm area - same as the mountain peak, plateau, hilltop area; radiation reception of southern slopes is grater than that of the plainspossible need of outside shading due to the high amounts of solar radiationEma house
http://www.seasite.niu.edu/easttimor/Andrea K. Molnar/ Northern Illinois University Department of Anthropology and Center for Southeast Asian Studies May 2005http://goo.gl/maps/ym847http://habitatio000.blogspot.hu/2012/07/ema-uma-kozep-timor-indonezia.html?utm_source=BP_recent
northern slopeeffected by a smaller amount of solar radiation, than the mountain peak, plateau, hilltop are, souther slope area; lower mean temperatures; lower radiation reception than on the southern slopes or plainspossible need for thicker structures with good heat-insulating propertiesTamberma (Batammaliba) house
www.flickr.comNicolo Boggio http://habitatio000.blogspot.hu/2012/07/tamberma-batammaliba-haz-togo.html?utm_source=BP_recent
 
 
 
built enviromentthermal surplus compared to open spaces, warmest areas are the densly built city environments, a phase delay can be observed in the daily warm up, compared to open spaces: usually it is colder in them morning and warmer in the evening, the phenomena occurs due to the thermal inertia and the own wind systems of the built environmentsdense layout of buildings; temperature surplus due to the change in the Earth's surface, no need for thick outer perimeter structures due to the higher temperatures, need for structures with good thermal storage capacity, and outer shadings, due to warm and solar radiation intense summersGurunsi earth houses
www.flickr.comRita Willaerthttp://goo.gl/maps/DZHWNhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/44931669487/v-18-gurunsi-foldhazak-gurunsi-terulet-burkina
www.flickr.comNorbert Schoenauer
foresta lower mean temperature in forest areas, then in open spaces, due to the shading and the vegetation itself; temperature fluctuation is te greatest on the canopy levelpossible need for thicker structures with good heat-insulating propertiesMayan house
www.flickr.comDennis Jarvishttp://goo.gl/maps/3P7Cuhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/42207617442/maja
www.flickr.comPlant Design Online
travelpicturesbyjimoliver.wordpress.comJim Oliver
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the WorldGonzález Claverán - Cambridge University Press, 1997
plain areaeffected by a great amount of solar radiation, more then on southern slopes, but less than on northern ones; due to the lack of natural shadings high temperature values can be typical, lower temperatures in shadow; temperatures can vary in areas cultivated by man due to the changes in the structure of the soil surfacewall structures with no or little openings, outside shading structures, due to the high temperatures and the lack of natural shadingsXingu maloka
ikpeng.orgChristian Knepperhttp://goo.gl/maps/xIx9lhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/41355262711/v-08-xingu-maloka-xingu-terulet-brazilia
ikpeng.orgMari Corrêa
pib.socioambiental.orgEduardo Biral
Paul Oliver: Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the WorldHamilton Botelho Malhano - Cambridge University Press
waterfrontthe waterfront wind phenomena effects the temparature, during daytime it cools the air down, during nighttime it heats the air updaytime and nighttime temperatures close to each other, no need for thick strucktures with great heat-insulating properties; residential spaces raised form the ground level, due to the often variing water levelsWewewa house
Cambridge University Press, 1995Joanna Mrosshttp://goo.gl/maps/yymVNhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/53514782811/v-35-wewewa-haz-wewewa-teruletek-nyugat-sumba
www.flickr.comnao nishimiya
www.flickr.comchristophe_cerisier
valleydue to the vally wind phenomena, cold air is getting into the valley during daytime, and hot air during nighttime; tipically more percipitationsteep pitched roofs due to the great amount of percipitation; durable, thick, multi-layered structures with good heat-insulating properties due to the high speeds of wind, and cold temperaturesManggarai Mbaru Niang
akdn.orgAga Khan Award for Architecture - Courtesy of Architecthttp://goo.gl/maps/0EShvhttp://habitatio.tumblr.com/post/51968562236/v-33-manggarai-mbaru-niang-terulet-wae-rebo
apakabardunia.comRumah Asuh / Yori Antar


In vernacular architecture the different cultures reacted to the typical environmental effects that surrounded their houses according to their own limits of technical development. It’s important to note that compared to the vernacular architecture’s tools, today’s technologies do not limit the site-specific design. The example buildings in the table draw attention to the architecture references in different mesoclimates within ’savannah’ climate, which covers great areas on almost every continent on Earth.

In addition to the basic differences showed in the table before, it’s important to mention the situations within the city. These situations are related to as topoclimates by climatology. A lot of researchers deal with the climate evolving within cities, where the temperature shows the most visible change compared to its environment, primarily temperature is growing, which manifests in city heat islands. The Illustration 9. - Schematic distribution of excessive temperature in town, its cross-sectional view and its horizontal structure in case of ideal weather conditions upgraded by János Unger shows the heat island effect.


In addition to the temperature factors studied in this chapter, from the viewpoint of building service engineering wind also can be determinative whose drying and cooling effect can cause temperature decrease. The wind can notonly appear in greatly dimensioned areas, but on quite small areas as well. These are the so called local winds. The shore wind appears on sea shores and lake shores, alternating direction within a single day. During daytime the land warms up quickly and intensively, thus it gets hotter than the surface of the lake or the sea. Therefore the air close to the surface streams from the high pressured water surface to the hotter, low pressured continent (lake wind, sea wind). Naturally, aloft the the circle closes, thus the air flows from the land towards the water. At night the situation is inverted, the sea, ocean cools down slower, therefore at night the water surface stays warmer and the air flows from the cooler continent to the warmer sea and aloft the circle closes (shore wind, continental wind). This phenomenon can be observed among others at lake Balaton.

On sloping surfaces, an individual wind system, the so called mountain-valley wind comes about. At daytime on the better warming upper part of the slope the air pressure is low, thus convection evolves, which makes air motion upwards from the valley (valley wind). At night on the upper convex part of the slope, due to the high surface radiation, the air cools quicker. The cold air starts to flow down aside the slope towards the valley (mountain wind). In the valley a „cold air lake” can appear at this time.


Along with the natural makings that determine topoclimate, the intervention of humans can also considerably effect the climatic conditions of a location. Heat islands typically appear in manmade cities. The lowering of this extra temperature coming with this phenomenon could be the task of urban designers. In case of Barcelona, during the design of the street network, the dominance of the cooling effect of the sea wind was an important feature to keep. In Barcelona urban designers wanted to moderate the expected extreme environmental effects by the use of the observed natural phenomena. Energy consumption of the cities can be made more efficient by measuring and using – on the contrary of today’s habit of ignoring or generalizing – site-specific data.

Recognizing the significance of the presented and studied facts in the various chapters of the curriculum, the geometrical shape of a building and the building-energetical effects of the local environment, a patented interdisciplinary invention, a newly designed measuring equipment and software system came to life at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

The system called DROID creates site and building geometry-specific data measured individually on the construction site and organizes them into a database. Information gathered from the database the individual building energetic conditions can be used already in the early phases of design. The result: significant energy- and cost-savings, plus the local architectural character reappears!

The first four chapters demonstrated that the inhabitants’ demands and the environmental effects impacting the building are significantly differing in time and space. In the following, a system of criteria will be presented for a building’s study, to be used in the future. We hope that based on this system of criteria, the present dimensioning - based on generalized data - and the result of a complex site-specific dimensioning methodology will be easy to compare. Besides general data the dimensioning also takes the specific characteristics of the site into consideration, thus approaching from the a bigger total to a smaller detail.

Make an analysis of an existing building in respect of site-specific planning!

Method of analysis / solution of the excercise:

The first step of the analysis is the evaluation of the data on the building in respect of the community of inhabitants and their demands regarding comfort levels. After this the energy dimensioning of the building is done according to the existing regulation, using the general data of the building and projected average meteorological data from over the country. Energy dimensioning used in this first step is not site-specific, as it is based only on average rough geometrical resolution weather data. As a result of the previous thoughts, this dimensioning can be applied only after the building is architecturally designed, it does not give any prior suggestion about the geometry and lay out of the building.

The second phase of the dimensioning methodology applicable in the future – which shows the study of the building site – contains data about the local climate, orography and all kinds of data which could effect the more optimal lay-out, geometry and structural design of the building, the energetic map of the site is created.

Students have to create a data sheet from a selected dwelling-house, considering the presented complex dimensioning methodology as scheme.

The whole curriculum –including the data sheet – wants to draw attention to the lacks and mistakes of the existing dimensioning system, or rather to the importance and possibilities of the site-specific building design. The forming of the the site-specific approach and the reform of the building energy dimensioning methodology is a long process, the current status of this process is summarized in this curriculum. The DROID measuring system, the evaluation algorithm and the visualization software – keeping up with technology and changing needs - are under constant development and refinement. As a result, this curriculum is an always changing and expanding collection of information following the constant developments.

  • Bánhidi László – Kajtár László (2000): Komfortelmélet, Budapest: Műegyetemi Kiadó

  • Debreceni Egyetem, Meteorológiai Tanszék, kiadott előadásanyag: meteor.geo.klte.hu/old/oktatas/kornyklim/terepklima01mm.rtf

  • Debreceni Egyetem, Meteorológiai Tanszék, kiadott előadásanyag: http://meteor.geo.klte.hu/meteorologia/index/hu/doc/terepklima01.pdf

  • Glenn Thomas Trewartha (1968): An Introduction to Climate, New York: Mcgraw-Hill Book Company

  • Joanna Kopcińska, Barbara Skowera, Jakub Wojkowski (2011): The impact of relief and land use on the diversity oflocal climate. http://www.cbks.cz/SbornikSMlyn11/Skowera.pdf

  • Masatoshi Yoshino (1975) Climate in a Small Area: An Introduction to Local Meteorology, Columbia University Press

  • Unger János (2010): A városi hősziget jelenség néhány aspektusa. http://real-d.mtak.hu/274/4/UngerJanos_5_Mu.pdf

  • Péczely György (1979): Éghajlattan, Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó

  • Péczely György (1984): A Föld éghajlata, Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó

  • Rados Jenő (1961): Magyar építészettörténet, Budapest: Műszaki Könyvkiadó

  • Dora Wiebenson and József Sisa (2002): The Architecture of Historic Hungary, MIT / Massachussets Institute of Technology

9.1. Chapter 1.:

Define comfort!

Write down the current temerature in your room at home!

What is the main medical complaint referring on the Sick Building Syndrome?

9.2. Chapter 2.:

Select an architectural subperiod, and write down the typical heating methods of the example building!

Select 2 architectural subperiods, and compare the comfort demands of the periods!

How did people adapt to the unfavorable indoor temperature values in the past?

9.3. Chapter 3.:

What are the factors effecting climate?

Name the main climatic zones!

What effects do climatic conditions have on buildings and their inhabitants?

9.4. Chapter 4.:

Write down the three spatial dimensions of the climatic events!

What is the definition of topoclimatology?

How does wind effect the incoming building energies?

9.5. Chapter 5.:

What is the DROID?

What is the aim of the DROID measuring system?

What are the parts of the DROID?